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Taqlīd? Nein danke!

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Re: Taqlīd? Nein danke!

Beitragvon PenName » Mo Dez 31, 2012 3:20 pm

bismillah
assalamu

EXPLAINING THE DIFFERENT CONNOTATIONS AND USAGES OF THE TERM "TAQLID" IN THE CLASSICAL TEXTS

This post is dedicated to all the connotations and usages of the word Taqlid that have been used by the classical scholars I have come across to date.

I thought about gathering them in one place because this is a confusing matter for many people. If the definitions are different, no debate on Taqlid can take place. One meaning could make Taqlid polytheism; the other could make it obligatory. This is a matter of terminology, and there is no evidence from the Shariah that forces anybody that such and such is the meaning of Taqlid. I will try to give one example for each usage of the term.

So when you read a passage about Taqlid, try to understand what meaning the writer is intending, and then proceed to place a ruling on that meaning only, not all the other meanings that have been expressed with the Taqlid term. Also, when debating, definitions need to be set out; it is ridiculously perplexing to see a narrow-minded Deobandi and Pakistani Salafi debating when they have two different perceptions of the word Taqlid in their mind.

I have taken the liberty not to translate any of the Arabic text because if you don’t know how to read it then you don’t really need to concern yourself with any of this, and chances are you are doing Taqlid like most people are; and also because, quite frankly, I’m far too lazy to translate anything today. What I hope from this though is that the fanatics on all sides of the debate lose, and the moderates can come to a common, sober understanding of the matter.

1. Taqlid i.e. to take the opinion of a qualified person whose statement is not evidence per se in the Shariah, but is a evidence for the ignorant (just like a Quran and Hadith are evidence for a scholar).
This definition is the main connotation and usage in the books of legal theory that discuss this issue. One of the best definitions given for this meaning of Taqlid is by Ibn 'l-Humam: العمل بقول من ليس قوله إحدى الحجج بلا حجة.

This meaning of Taqlid has either one of two rulings:
a) obligatory - for the one incapable of arriving at his own conclusion
b) prohibited - for the one capable of arriving at his own conclusion. THIS is the one where most refutations against Taqlid are directed at, by the likes of al-Jassas, Ibn `Abd 'l-Barr, Ibn Khuwayz Mandad, Ibn 'l-Qayyim, etc. (There are further sub-details on this type of Taqlid discussed in the texts about scholars doing Taqlid of other scholars.)

According to this definition of Taqlid, it would mean there is no such thing as 'Taqlid of the Prophet', because the Prophet per se is evidence. Likewise, there is no such thing as Taqlid of Quran or consensus, because both are evidence in their own right.

2. Taqlid i.e. to follow something valid, and this would encompass a scholar as well as the Prophet peace be upon him.
Some Shafi`i legal theory texts actually do allow the application of the term Taqlid for the Prophet as well. Al-Zarkashi:
لا خلاف أن قبول قول غير النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم من الصحابة والتابعين يسمى تقليدا. وأما قبول قوله عليه السلام فهل يسمى تقليدا؟ وجهان ينبنيان على الخلاف في حقيقة التقليد ماذا؟ قلت: وذكر الشيخ أبو محمد الجويني في المسألة في أول السلسلة أن الذي نص عليه الشافعي أنه يسمى تقليدا، فإنه قال في حق الصحابي لما ذهب إلى أنه لا يجب الأخذ بقوله ما نصه: فإما أن يقلده فلم يجعل الله ذلك لأحد بعد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم. انتهى

وخطأ الماوردي من قال إنه ليس بتقليد، ولكن قال الروياني في البحر: أطلق الشافعي على جعل القبول من النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم تقليدا ولم يرد حقيقة التقليد، وإنما أراد القبول من السؤال

وفي وقوع اسم التقليد عليه وجهان، قال: والصحيح من المذهب أنه يتناوله هذا الاسم، وفي هذا إشارة إلى رجوع الخلاف إلى اللفظ، وبه صرح إمام الحرمين في التلخيص وقال: هو اختلاف في عبارة يهون موقعها عند ذوي التحقيق

واختار ابن السمعاني أنه لا يسمى تقليدا، بل هو اتباع شخص، لأن الدليل قد قام في أن له حجة، فلا يكون قبول قوله قبول قول في الدين من قائله بلا حجة

Most say though that the first usage of Taqlid is the best, and to say 'Taqlid of the Prophet' is just metaphorical, i.e. to simply follow).

3. Taqlid i.e. Ittiba` of a person who from whom the laws originate, and this is reserved for the Prophet peace be upon him.
This usage has been sourced in al-Shafi`is words, who said (via al-Zarkashi): ولا يجوز تقليد أحد سوى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم. Scholars have said this application of the term Taqlid is metaphorical, as mentioned above. Why the Prophet peace be upon him was singled out by al-Shafi`i as one we should do 'Taqlid' of is because he was a human being with knowledge (which explains why the term Taqlid is never used for Quran, or Allah, or consensus, or the Sunnah per se, or his statements and actions i.e. Hadith, etc.)

4. Taqlid i.e. to follow something that is against the proof.
This meaning has been used by Imam Abu Hanifah's student, Muhammad bin 'l-Hasan, who said (in the context of refuting Imam Abu Hanifah (see below, from al-Mabsut by al-Sarakhsi)
وقد استبعد محمد رحمه الله تعالى قول أبي حنيفة في الكتاب لهذا وسماه تحكما على الناس من غير حجة فقال ما أخذ الناس بقول أبي حنيفة وأصحابه إلا بتركهم التحكم ع لى الناس فإذا كانوا هم الذين يتحكمون على الناس بغير أثر ولا قياس لم يقلدوا هذه الأشياء ولو جاز التقليد كان من مضي من قبل أبي حنيفة مثل الحسن البصري وإبراهيم النخعي رحمهما الله تعالى أحرى أن يقلدوا ولم يحمد على ما قال
Just as a sidenote, al-Sarakshi didn't like the above statement by Imam Muhammad and went on to say regarding him:
وقيل: بسبب ذلك انقطع خاطره فلم يتمكن من تفريغ مسائل الوقف حتى خاض في الصكوك واستكثر أصحابه من بعده من تفريغ مسائل الوقف كالخصاف وهلال رحمهما الله تعالى، ولو كان أبو حنيفة رضي الله تعالى عنه في الأحياء حين قال ما قال لدمر عليه، فإنه كما قال مالك رضي الله تعالى عنه رأيت رجلا لو قال هذه الأسطوانة من ذهب لدل عليه ولكن كل مجرى بالجلاء يسر

What we are interested in here is his usage of the word Taqlid - to follow someone when they go against real proof. This condemned Taqlid only applies to scholars and advanced students because they are aware of the evidences, not laymen or quasi-laymen students. A layman who has no clue is excused.

5. Taqlid i.e. not to do Ijtihad.
Al-Zarkashi quotes some Usoolis on this, who suggest that even laymen have to do a degree of Ijtihad when identifying a scholar, hence they are not doing Taqlid - in other words, Taqlid in this connotation does not even exist in the world, as everyone is doing Ijtihad of some sort their own accord:
أخذ العامي بقول المجتهد، هل يسمى تقليدا أم لا؟ فقيل: ليس بتقليد لأنه لا بد له من نوع اجتهاد، وبه جزم القاضي والغزالي والآمدي وابن الحاجب، وحكاه العبادي في زيادته عن الأستاذ أبي إسحاق، لأنه بذل مجهوده في الأخذ بقول الأعلم. وقال القاضي في مختصر التقريب: الذي نختاره أن ذلك ليس بتقليد أصلا، فإن قول العالم حجة في حق المستفتي، نصبه الرب علما في حق العامي، فأوجب عليه العمل به، كما أوجب على المجتهد العمل باجتهاده، واجتهاده علم عليه. ويتخرج من هذا أنه لا يتصور تقليد مباح في الشريعة، لا في الأصول ولا في الفروع، إذ التقليد على ما عرفه القاضي: اتباع من لم يقم باتباعه حجة ولم يستند إلى علم. قال: ولو ساغ تسمية العامي مقلدا مع أن قول العالم في حقه واجب الاتباع جاز أن يسمى المتمسك بالنصوص وغيرها من الدلائل مقلدا. قال القاضي: ولأنه يستند إلى حجة قطعية وهو الإجماع، فلا يكون تقليدا. وهذا بناء منه على أحد تفسيري التقليد

6. Taqlid i.e. not to follow anything that is evidence for YOU
- For the scholar, evidence is Quran, Sunnah, consensus, analogy, etc.
-For the layman, the sole evidence is the verdict of jurisconsult. THIS is the evidence of the lay Muqallid. The books of legal theory are quite clear that for a Muqallid, the verdict of the jurisconsult is like what real evidence is for a scholar. This is also the reason some legal theorists believe that laymen must exercise preference (Tarjih) between choosing the best jurisconsult available when they differ, just like a scholar exercises preference between conflicting evidences.

Ibn 'l-Hajib, Ibn 'l-Baqillani and others said that THIS is the meaning of Taqlid. In other words, because the layman’s evidence is to take from a scholar, that would not be Taqlid for him.

7. Taqlid i.e. to follow another opinion.
The usage of this meaning is found in the issue of التقليد بعد العمل - to do Taqlid post-action. The scenario is: if one intended to pray on the Hanafi way, but after prayer realised that his prayer was not valid according to the Hanafis due to whatever reason, but is nevertheless valid in the opinion of other schools, he does not have to repeat the prayer. This is is known as التقليد بعد العمل. Some scholars, mainly Shafi`is, have talked about this issue and a link to explaining this can be found here, mainly referenced from Bughyat 'l-Mustarshidīn by `Abd 'l-Raḥmān bin Muḥammad bin Ḥusayn Bā-`Alawī (died 1320 A.H.), a Yemeni scholar:
رسالة فى التقليد لشيخنا الشيخ سالم بن عبدالله باقطيان - ملتقى أهل الحديث

8. Taqlid i.e. to follow an opinion outside of one’s school of practice.
This usage of the term has been sourced from al-Tahtawi of the Hanafis, who said in his scholia of al-Durr al-Mukhtar:
قلد الحنفي مالكا ثم أراد الرجوع عن التقليد أي ويحكم بمذهبه بأن المهر لا يلزمه فليس له ذلك انتهى ح واعلم أنه ليس المراد نفي جواز التقليد مطلقا بل في نحو ما ذكرنا

9. Taqlid i.e. adherence to one scholar (or school).
This has been used by al-Zarkashi himself (note only the last ‘Taqlid’ word):
هل يجب على العامي التزام تقليد معين في كل واقعة؟ فيه وجهان. قال إلكيا: يلزمه. وقال ابن برهان: لا، ورجحه النووي في أوائل القضاء، وهو الصحيح، فإن الصحابة رضوان الله عليهم لم ينكروا على العامة تقليد بعضهم من غير تقليد

- Ibrahim Ismail, Dewsbury


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Question: Which is better: Studying [according to] a school [of law] or [studying all] preferred opinion[s]?

Answer by Ṣāliḥ al-`Uṣaymī: What is the preferred opinion? What is the preferred opinion? Brothers, this [concept of studying according to the preferred opinion] is a mistake in acquiring knowledge.

The preferred opinion is the legal preference a Mujtahid arrives at, whether he is an absolute or restricted Mujtahid. This is the [true meaning of] the preferred opinion. [In other words, i]t is the Ijtihād upon which the opinion of an absolute or restricted Mujtahid concludes. Thus, [the concept of preferred opinion essentially means that it] is the opinion of [only one] Mujtahid, whether he is undertaking Ijtihād restricted to [that] issue only, or has the power to undertake Ijtihād in all [legal matters]. So [his opinion] is the preferred position relative to him [only].

When you want to study law [and want to know the preferred opinion, the obvious subsequent question for you would be]: Do you want the preferred opinion according to `Abd 'l-`Azīz Ibn Bāz, or the preferred opinion according to Muḥammad Ibn 'l-`Uthaymīn, or the preferred opinion according to Ṣāliḥ al-Fawzān, or [the preferred opinion according to] others who have taught law in recent years in this region of ours, and possesses his [own personal legal] preferences? [You may] as a result [now comprehend that] the preferred opinion is limited to [one] Mujtahid [and is relative to him only, i.e. it is his personal] preference.
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Re: Taqlīd? Nein danke!

Beitragvon ibn ʿUmar » Sa Jan 26, 2013 9:15 pm

bismillah
assalamu


al-'Arifi über den Taqlid:



(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LTdyKsvUmJM)
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